Architecture

Looking at the front of the building from the Ring Road, one can see the original structure that has been preserved since 1869. The facades are decorated in Renaissance-style arches, and the veranda on the Ring Road side emphasizes the public character of the building.

The statues of the two riders on horseback were placed on the main facade of the loggia in 1876. They were created by Ernst Julius Hähnel, and represent Erato’s two winged horses that are led by “Harmony and the Muse of Poetry”.

On the arches above the veranda are Hähnel’s five bronze statues representing, from left to right: heroism, tragedy, fantasy, comedy, and love. On the right and left sides of the opera house are two fountains by Josef Gasser, representing two different worlds: on the left, music, dance, joy, and levity, and on the right, seduction, sorrow, love, and revenge.

The rear part of the two-piece building is clearly broader, and includes the stage and the surrounding rooms. The narrower front part contains the auditorium and the adjoining rooms that are open to the public. The different roof styles are remarkable: the vaulted roof over the stage and auditorium that towers above all the secondary rooms; the hipped roof of the transverse wings; the gable roof of the connecting structures between the transverse wings; and the French roofs of the towers.

The transverse wings, which stand perpendicular to the main building, originally served as driveways for horse-drawn carriages. At the front of the transverse wing, one finds the coats of arms of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

The backstage area was newly constructed during the postwar period, using the existing foundations. Desperately needed rehearsal space was added to the original design, in addition to a cafeteria and several administrative rooms. Most of the premises, including the dressing rooms, were equipped with speakers and a video monitoring system, which allows the performers and stagehands to constantly observe the stage.

In the summer months from 1991 to 1993, and during a six month period in 1994, the Vienna State Opera experienced extensive renovation work. In order to create more precise and trouble-free backstage operations, hydraulically operated lifting platforms and electromechanical lifts were installed using the latest technology. The power supply to the State Opera, which was previously sourced by the Hofburg, is now operated by two substations. In addition to these measures, a new heating system, ventilation system, fire protection system and fire detection system were installed and remain completely invisible to the audience. Other auditorium renovations, such as painting and the installation of new box seating also took place.

During the six month period in 1994 when the State Opera was closed for renovations, a previously unused space was acoustically adapted into a beautiful new rehearsal hall. On September 1, 1995, this hall was named "Probebühne Eberhard Waechter" (Rehearsal Stage Eberhard Waechter), to keep the memory of the late singer and opera director alive.

On November 2, 2004, the largest rehearsal stage in the Vienna State Opera, was renamed “Carlos Kleiber Probebühne” (Rehearsal Stage Carlos Kleiber). In this way, the memory of the extraordinary conductor will be upheld.

In addition to these rehearsal stages, the State Opera now has three halls for ensemble rehearsals, with space for a choir and an orchestra, and also the Organ Hall on the sixth floor. The Organ Hall received its name from the 2,500 pipe organ that it houses. The Vienna State Opera is the world’s only opera house with such a large pipe organ. The hall is not only used for rehearsals, but also during performances where the sound will actually transfer into the auditorium. Other “live” acoustic impressions are created in the hall, such as the hammering of the anvils in Wagner's "Rheingold”. The State Opera additionally holds ten acoustically isolated individual practice rooms, and both a large and a small ballet rehearsal hall.

The central box gives a spectacular view of the horseshoe-shaped auditorium, which had to be completely rebuilt after the Second World War. Erich Boltenstern, a professor at the Technical University and the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna, was awarded the privilege of redesigning the auditorium, the new staircases leading to the former third floor gallery, all public coat rooms, and the intermission halls in the upper levels. The architects Otto Prossinger, Ceno Kosak, and Felix Čevela took over the design of the intermission halls in the lower level. Van der Nüll and Sicardsburg’s original plan for the basic shape of the box theater with three tiers and two levels of open boxes (balcony and gallery) was retained.

The capacity of the auditorium is now 2,284 instead of the previous 2,881. It offers 1,709 seats, 567 standing spaces, 4 wheelchair spaces, and 4 wheelchair companion seats. The reduction of the number of spaces is due to stricter building codes and fire regulations. The reinforced concrete boxes were covered with wood for acoustic reasons, as the acoustics of the Vienna Opera House have always been of unprecedented brilliance. Some of the lateral upper tier seats with limited visibility were equipped with lamps for the purpose of reading the scores during the performance. The traditional colors of red, gold, and ivory were used for the auditorium, and the large central chandelier was replaced for safety by ring of built-in ceiling lights made of crystal glass. The glass ring weighs about 3,000 kilograms and uses 1,100 bulbs. It is 7 meters in diameter and 5 meters high; it has space for a lighting stand and corridors for maintenance of the system.

Rudolf Eisenmenger designed the iron curtain that separates the audience from the stage. It shows a scene from Gluck's opera “Orpheus and Eurydice”. In the spring of 1998, the State Opera commissioned the group “museum in progress” with creating a new picture for each season. This requires a specially developed process, which both guarantees the preservation of Eisenmenger's image, and shows the optimal quality of the newly created contemporary work. With the creation of contemporary museum space inside the Vienna State Opera, this traditional house shows its openness towards progressive artistic developments.

The orchestra pit is the nightly home to musicians from one of the most famous ensembles in the world: the members of the State Opera Orchestra, from which musicians for the Vienna Philharmonic are recruited. The orchestra pit, with 123 square meters of space, holds approximately 110 musicians.

For fire protection, there are three iron curtains: the main curtain which separates the stage from the auditorium, and two more to fireproof the side stages and the backstage. For additional protection, the previous wooden ceilings were replaced by reinforced concrete slabs. In place of the previous slate roof coupled with wooden shingles, a new fireproof, waterproof and windproof roof was built. This copper skin over a thin reinforced concrete shell was the original desire of architect Van der NüIl, and it was finally brought to fruition many years later.

Terraces were added on the top floor, creating not only additional escape routes, but also outdoor intermission areas during the warmer months. Since September 1999, the large terrace has been the home of another stage: the Mobilkom Austria tent for children.

Since 1998 the exhibition series "Safety Curtain" has been transforming the safety curtain into a temporary exhibition space for contemporary art. Conceived by museum in progress this project uniquely combines tradition and innovation. An internationally renowned jury selects the distinguished artists, whose work is then exhibited at the State Opera House during the opera season.

For the twentieth Safety Curtain exhibition conceived by museum in progress (www.mip.at) and organised in cooperation with the Wiener Staatsoper and Bundestheater-Holding since 1998, the jury (Daniel Birnbaum, Hans-Ulrich Obrist) has chosen the internationally renowned American artist John Baldessari.

http://www.mip.at/projects/eiserner-vorhang

 

© John Baldessari. Courtesy of the artist and Marian Goodman Gallery

John Baldessari was born in National City, California, in 1931. He is an important proponent of concept and media art and a major and highly successful international artist. He has received numerous awards, including the Goslar Imperial Ring (2012), the Golden Lion of the Biennale in Venice for his life’s work (2009), the Lifetime Achievement Award from Americans for the Arts (2005) and the Oskar Kokoschka Prize (1996).

He has had major solo exhibitions at the Städel Museum in Frankfurt (2015), the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (2010), the Tate Gallery of Modern Art in London (2009), the mumok in Vienna (2005) and the Guggenheim Museum in Berlin (2004). Baldessari’s works have also be presented at the Biennale in Venice (1997, 2003, 2009), the Whitney Biennial in New York (1983) and Documenta V, VII and XIII in Kassel (1972, 1982, 2012).

http://www.baldessari.org/